chrysomya megacephala description

Results indicate a strong significant and positive correlation between centroid size and developmental time with the correlation coefficient, r, ranged from 0.964 (study replicate 1) to 0.973 (study replicate 2) (p < 0.05). 2008; Kumara et al. These structures provide vital diagnostic features to identify blow fly species of forensic importance (Greenberg and Kunich 2002) but apparently, the morphometric information of cephalopharyngeal skeleton is still lacking. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-006-0086-x, Badenhorst R, Villet MH (2018) The uses of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in forensic entomology. Anat Rec 298:5–28. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. (1997) while the subsequent larval species were determined based on Barros-Cordeiro and Pujol-Luz (2010) and Sukontason et al. Zookeys 540:41–59. The two-dimensional images were then converted to a readable format using tpsUtil (version 1.74) and landmarks were plotted by using tpsDig2 (version 2.31) (download link: http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/morph/). Its abilities to find dead bodies and carry pathogens give it a prominence in human affairs that may involve prosecution or litigation, and therefore forensic entomologists. Google Scholar, Amendt J, Campobasso CP, Gaudry E, Reiter C, LeBlanc HN, Hall MJR (2007) Best practice in forensic entomology–standards and guidelines. It includes stages through which an organism passes, ie, metamorphosis, instars, gametophyte/embryophyte, and, transitions from sessile to mobile forms. Int J Legal Med 127(1):231–241. Also discusses timing, though morphology of each form would be better placed in the field for Morphology. The authors would like to thank laboratory staffs from Forensic Science Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, UKM, for providing the equipment and chemicals required. However, there were no significant differences detected between groups sampled on the same day such as group 20 and 26 h (day 1), group 44 and 50 h (day 2), group 68 and 74 h (day 3), and group 74 and 92 h (day 4). The scatter plot from CV1 and CV2 shows that the cephalopharyngeal skeletons of C. megacephala at 20- and 26-h age group was clearly isolated from those at 44- to 92-h group. Acta Entomol Sinica 57(9):1105–1111, Barros-Cordeiro KB, Pujol-Luz JS (2010) Morfologia e duração do desenvolvimento pós-embrionário de Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) em condições de laboratório. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.20317, CAS  https://doi.org/10.4404/hystrix-24.1-6292, Klingenberg CP (1998) Heterochrony and allometry: the analysis of evolutionary change in ontogeny. 2017) while in the larval stages, Nuñez and Liria (2016) successfully differentiated C. megacephala, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819), and Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann 1830) by using a similar approach. Chrysomya’s … The regression function in MorphoJ was used to determine ontogenetic allometry which is the influence of size changes on the shape. Entomol Sci 21:164–168. Cite this article. For each cage, two tables were made: one Correlations between centroid size and cephalopharyngeal skeleton developmental time were determined by using Pearson’s correlation test. Description: Chrysomya is an Old World blow fly genus belonging to the family Calliphoridae. Infect Genet Evol 8(6):875–890. Hystrix It J Mamm 24(1):15–24. Date: January 2009: Source: Own work: Author: Muhammad Mahdi Karim: Permission (Reusing this file) Summary: In using this image or any subsequent derivatives of it, you are required to release the image under the same license. 2004; Sukontason 2005; Sukontason et al. https://doi.org/10.1111/ede.12246, Sukontason K, Bunchoo M, Khantawa B, Pianjai S, Sukontason K, Methanitikorn R, Rongsriyam Y (2000) Mechanical carrier of bacterial enteric pathogens by Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Chiang Mai, Thailand. (Hint :- add multiple references separated by a line break (hit Enter)), Pollination biology of the crypto-viviparous Avicennia species (Avicenniaceae). https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485300018770, Sulaiman S, Sohadi AR, Yunus H, Iberahim R (1988) The role of some cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers in Malaysia. Int J Legal Med 121(2):90–104. 2006; Rodríguez-Mendoza et al. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-011-0675-7, Santillán-Guayasamín S, Villacís AG, Grijalva MJ, Dujardin JP (2017) The modern morphometric approach to identify eggs of Triatominae. Feral derived form (fdf) Chrysomya megacephala, Bharti & Kurahashi, 2009. Eur J Entomol 110(3):461–468. Front Zool 3(15). On the following day, at 0900 hours, newly emerged first instar larvae were transferred evenly into five freshly prepared rearing containers labeled as day 1 to day 5. Plos One 6(10):e25630. This scope of application in GM could be useful to describe the growth of forensically important insects. They were subsequently analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for independent groups (α = 0.05). By using regression analysis of the Procrustes coordinates and centroid size/log-transformed centroid size, the association between shape and size across different age groups was significant with moderate to high effect. a First instar. Complete metamorphosis. Images were also taken in a similar plane by using fixed focal length and lighting. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2163-z, Strelin MM, Benitez-Vieyra S, Fornoni J, Klingenberg CP, Cocucci A (2018) The evolution of floral ontogenetic allometry in the Andean genus Caiophora (Loasaceae, subfam. https://doi.org/10.4404/hystrix-24.1-7691, Klingenberg CP (2016) Size, shape, and form: concepts of allometry in geometric morphometrics. … 2013). It flowers during t... Syzygium alternifolium is a semi-evergreen mass-flowering tree species of dry deciduous forest in t... Senior-White, R., Aubertin, D. and Smart, J. Article  Decay is caused by bacteria. Cages of C. megacephala adults were prepared with four different larval densities (100, 200, 400 and 800). The term “Old World blow fly” is a derivative of both the associated family, Calliphoridae, and the belief that the genus Chrysomya originated in Asia and migrated to North America only relatively recently. Med Vet Entomol 27:181–193. The relationship between centroid size and age in ontogenetic allometry through multivariate regression analysis has been found reliable to explain biological shape changes across different ages including humans (Bulygina et al. Mol Ecol Resour 11(2):353–357. Hierarchy contributed by the species page author, Accessed through GBIF data portal, GBIF Backbone Taxonomy, Default IBP taxonomic classification, based on Catalogue of Life, | It is the Afro-Asian counterpart of Cochliomyia hominivorax and also is primarily important as a parasite of livestock. In contrast with its body length, the measurement based on cephalopharyngeal skeleton morphometry was more reliable and consistent to be used as growth parameter in forensic entomology (Rabbani and Zuha 2017; Eliza and Zuha 2018). Chrysomya were collected throughout the sampling period. Chrysomya pacifica sp. The cercus of the male is longer than that of the female. 1). Egypt J Forensic Sci 9, 55 (2019). Trop Biomed 21(2):69–75, CAS  Background. 2012) while at the same time needs to adequately cover the morphology of the subject. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Gunz P, Mitteroecker P (2013) Semilandmarks: a method for quantifying curves and surfaces. Any information on longevity, including the average period an organism can be expected to survive. Powered by the open source Biodiversity Informatics Platform. Generally found on meat, rotten logs, carrion, human feces, fish , garbage dumps etc. Pictured in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Diptera vol VI, family Calliphoridae. Pairwise comparison of centroid sizes between sampling intervals indicated the shape mostly transformed during early developmental stages (Table 2). 2006; Gunz and Mitteroecker 2013; Changbunjong et al. Hydrobiologia 670:5–22. Description: English: A male Chrysomya megacephala. Given the results from the present study, GM analysis on cephalopharyngeal skeleton shape variation merit further exploratory investigations, especially in comparing different forensically important fly species and by using different environmental settings such as rearing temperatures and food sources as these could also influence the biological shape (Dujardin 2008; Gobbi et al. For the first instar larvae, cephalopharyngeal skeletons were mounted directly on the glass slide without KOH and subsequent treatments because the specimens were too delicate. We hypothesized that centroid size correlates with developmental time and varied independently between age groups. There were also no significant differences between 68 and 74 h (day 3) with 92 h (day 4). The objective of this work was to evaluate some aspects of the populational ecology of Chrysomya megacephala, analyzing demographic aspects of adults kept under experimental conditions. Disease-causing bacteria carried by flies include Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Shigella disentry. Sources des 2 jeux de données. Covers ranges, e.g., a global range, or a narrower one; may be biogeographical, political or other (e.g., managed areas like conservencies); endemism; native or exotic. | Ten species of the family Calliphoridae are reported from Samoa. Källor a b c; Externa länkar. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-008-0895-6, Sukontason KL (2005) Forensically important fly maggots in a floating corpse: the first case report in Thailand. 2010; Strelin et al. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) development by landmark-based geometric morphometrics of cephalopharyngeal skeleton: a preliminary assessment for forensic entomology application. Med Vet Entomol 2:1):1–1):6. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.1988.tb00043.x, Szpila K, Hall MJR, Sukontason KL, Tantawi TI (2013) Morphology and identification of first instars of the European and Mediterranean blowflies of forensic importance. Cross-validation test in DFA revealed high percentages of correctly classified specimens in all sampling intervals (86.7–100.0%; p < 0.0001) except for pairs of 20–26, 44–50, and 68–92 age groups, which corresponded to non-significant results in Mahalanobis and Procrustes distances output (Table 4). PubMed  Dev Genes Evol 226:113–137. Additionally, this species also played a significant role in bacterial and parasitic transmissions in humans (Sulaiman et al. The Paleontological Society Papers 16:163–188. ), associated mostly to vertebrates. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00435-015-0297-0, Nuñez J, Liria J (2016) Cephalopharyngeal geometric morphometrics in three blowfly species (Diptera: Calliphoridae). 1989; Sukontason et al. saffranea, Ch. Larvae of Chrysomya species were obtained from eggs laid by females in cultures established from flies wild-caught and maintained at the University of Wollongong (Ch. Google Scholar, Sukontason K, Piangjai S, Siriwattanarungsee S, Sukontason KL (2008) Morphology and developmental rate of blow flies Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies in Thailand: application in forensic entomology. Blood, body fluids etc. https://doi.org/10.1080/11250000903039794, Schutze MK, Jessup A, Clarke AR (2012) Wing shape as a potential discriminator of morphologically similar pest taxa between the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae). C. megacephala have large red eyes, those of males being close together, and those of females farther apart. A single batch of eggs oviposited by a female C. megacephala was collected carefully by using fine-tip forceps and transferred into a rearing container with approximately 30 g fresh cow’s liver as food source. Forensic Sci Int 138:50–61. In forensic entomology, the age of dipterous larvae, found feeding on decomposing human remains, can be used to estimate minimum post mortem interval (mPMI) . The life cycle: Egg, three instars, pre-pupa, pupa, adult. Sim, LX., Zuha, R.M. These flies pose significant health risks, especially due to their close association with human settlements. https://doi.org/10.3897/szookeys.540.6012, Changbunjong T, Sumruayphol S, Weluwanarak T, Ruangsittichai J, Dujardin JP (2016) Landmark and outline-based geometric morphometrics analysis of three Stomoxys flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Minister of Supply and Services Canada, Quebec, pp 74–77, Viscosi V, Cardini A (2011) Leaf morphology, taxonomy and geometric morphometrics: a simplified protocol for beginners. This study was conducted in two replicates in natural conditions, i.e., study replicate 1 from 14 August 2018 to 18 August 2018, and study replicate 2 from 24 September 2018 to 29 September 2018. PubMed Central  https://doi.org/10.1186/s41935-019-0158-y, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s41935-019-0158-y, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Larval sampling was conducted twice at 0900 hours and 1500 hours, per day, based on rearing containers sequence. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) is the most abundant and predominant species which arrives and colonizes a cadaver first in most parts of China. Egypt J For Sci 5(1):1–12. In the present study, the geometric morphometric analysis produced a visual classification of C. megacephala cephalopharyngeal skeletons based on their age groups. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2002.tb00117.x, Klingenberg CP (2011) MorphoJ: an integrated software package for geometric morphometrics. This effect accounted for 60.3% of the total shape variation. It is also possible to tilt the cephalopharyngeal skeleton form dorsally or ventrally to explore shape variation as object symmetry (Klingenberg 2002), i.e., the alternate view to asymmetrical lateral shape as in the current study. latifrons). Through visual assessment of these five landmarks on C. megacephala larval development, transformation occurred at all landmarks with the least change on landmark 3 (the concavity of pharyngeal sclerite or medial incision). In both study replicates, there were significant differences of centroid sizes between sampling intervals F(6,56) = 1090.996, p < 0.05, η2 = 0.991 (large effect size) (study replicate 1) and F(6,50) = 1219.740, p < 0.05, η2 = 0.993 (large effect size) (study replicate 2). Google Scholar, Bookstein FL (1991) Morphometric tools for landmark data: geometry and biology. Raja M. Zuha. Geometrical landmarks of C. megacephala cephalopharyngeal skeleton in three different instars. Bull Ent Res 79(4):625–629. The genus Chrysomya contains a number of species including Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya megacephala. A textual diagnostic description of the species that is not necessarily structured. Zoomorphology 135(2):233–241. [1] [2] Inga underarter finns listade i Catalogue of Life. Ital J Zool 77(3):296–302. Forensic Sci Res 3(1):2–15. 2018). This fly can be a nuisance to humans and even cause accidental myiasis. Images were obtained from the specimens; digitized and geometric morphometric analysis on C. megacephala cephalopharyngeal skeletons was performed with MorphoJ software based on the ordination of five landmarks. C. megacephala's eggs are "oval with one flat face and another convex". https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025630, CAS  Google Scholar, Tatsuta H, Takahashi KH, Sakamaki Y (2018) Geometric morphometrics in entomology: basics and applications. To minimize this effect, we removed any obscure landmarks when using a two-dimensional image of cephalopharyngeal skeleton as a sample. The species of this family are generally known as blue bottles or green bottles. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-1982-2, Scalici M, Macale D, Gibertini G (2010) Allometry in the ontogenesis of Austropotamobius pallipes species complex (Decapoda: Astacidae): the use of geometric morphometrics. [1] Bildgalleri. GM analysis on C. megacephala cephalopharyngeal skeleton can be useful to discriminate larval age group and aid growth visualization based on landmark displacements. Chrysomya megacephala larvae were used as sample, as this species was one of the most prevalent sarcosaprophagous species found at death scenes in Malaysia, Thailand, and the rest of the world (Lee et al. Apart from discriminating species into phenetic groups, GM also covers ontogenetic allometry which can explain how morphological variation attributes directly to growth (Klingenberg 1998). Does not include altitudinal distribution, which is covered under Habitat. Like the American screwworm, this species is attracted to dry, open wounds as well as to most body openings. This research was funded by UKM Research Incentive Grant: GGP-2017-036. 2000). (1940). The species Chrysomya megacephala is commonly known as the Oriental Laterine fly and is a synanthrope. Along CV2 (2.2%), landmark 1, 3, and 5 dispositions were amplified. The remains of a 53-yr-old-male were concurrently infested with third instars of the two blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), near a severe tumor lesion presented on the lower right leg. In addition, these changes explained by the ontogenetic allometry in C. megacephala larva were represented by the cephalopharyngeal skeleton. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2012.00200.x, Kurahashi H, Benjaphong N, Omar B (1997) Blow flies (Insecta: Diptera: Calliphoridae) of Malaysia and Singapore. The method comprises the following steps: after the utensil rubbishes are coarsely crushed, auxiliary materials are added to obtain a Chrysomya megacephala maggot culture material; Chrysomya megacephala ovum is accessed on the surface of … Please contact the author for data requests. The cephalopharyngeal skeleton shape was profiled based on centroid size, i.e., the square root of the sum of squared distances between each landmark and the centroid of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton (Zelditch et al. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.2012.01030.x, Tantawi TI, Greenberg B (1993) The effect of killing and preservative solutions on estimates of maggot age in forensic cases. On the ontogenetic allometric effect, regression analysis on the Procrustes coordinates on centroid size among age groups revealed a significant relationship between cephalopharyngeal skeleton shape variation and size (permutation 10,000 rounds in MorphoJ: p < 0.0001). Description: Early morning on the little mangrove beach, flies gather on leaves to watch the sunrise. Indian J For Med Toxicol 11(2):217–221. https://doi.org/10.4404/hystrix-24.1-6369, Murta-Fonseca RA, Fernandes DS (2016) The skull of Hydrodynastes gigas (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854) (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) as a model of snake ontogenetic allometry inferred by geometric morphometrics. J Vector Ecol 37(1):62–68. Images of cephalopharyngeal skeleton were obtained directly after specimen mounting by using a stereomicroscope (Nikon, Japan) fitted with a 12-megapixel USB3.0 CMOS microscope camera (Toupcam, China). Forensic Sci Int 179(1):1–10. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-566X2005000300019, Rodríguez-Mendoza R, Muñoz M, Saborido-Rey F (2011) Ontogenetic allometry of the bluemouth, Helicolenus dactylopterus dactylopterus (Teleostei: Scorpaenidae), in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean based on geometric morphometrics. The fauna of British India including the remainder of the Oriental region. Other than discriminating between species, geometric morphometrics was found to be practical to visualize larval growth based on cephalopharyngeal skeletons which can be useful in forensic entomology. In forensic entomology, cephalopharyngeal skeleton plays a crucial role in species identification but the morphometric information of this part is scarce. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2008.07.011, Eliza P, Zuha RM (2018) Preliminary assessment of cephalopharyngeal skeleton length and body length of Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedermann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae as potential parameters to estimate minimum post mortem interval. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. Description Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) occurs on every continent and is closely associated with carrion and decaying material in human environments. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. PubMed Central  In recent years, geometric morphometrics (GM) has been increasingly utilized as a multivariate tool to classify insect species based on morphological shape in both mature and immature stages including flies (Canal et al. https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-9994-3-15, Day DM, Wallman JF (2008) Effect of preservative solutions on preservation of Calliphora augur and Lucilia cuprina larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae) with implications for post-mortem interval estimates. https://doi.org/10.1111/ens.12293, Teskey HJ (1981) Morphology and terminology – larvae. Any information on infraranks like subspecies, varieties, and races. The ontogenetic allometry, i.e., the relationship between size and shape across different ages, and visualization of landmark dispositions were also performed by using prescribed methods (Klingenberg 2013; Mitteroecker et al. However, for future studies, we recommend using an equal amount of sample size between groups and to reassess the GM landmarks. Adams ZJO, Hall MJR (2003) Methods used for the killing and preservation of blowfly larvae, and their effect on post-mortem larval length. The oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), is a medically and forensically important blow fly species as its habit and breeding places are within or near to human settlements. Maybe they spend the nights there. J Med Assoc Thai 88(10):1458–1460, Sulaiman S, Sohadi AR, Jeffery J (1989) Human helminth parasite burdens on cyclorrhaphan flies (Diptera) trapped at aboriginal settlement in Malaysia. c Third instar (bar = 0.5 mm). Cephalopharyngeal skeletons that were not thoroughly cleared or inclined from lateral position were omitted from being used as samples. In interpreting speciation and sexual dimorphism among flies, adult wing morphology is the most frequently utilized body part (Gidaszewski et al. 2013). rufifacies, Ch. Biol Rev 73:79–123. Loasoideae). Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), called the Oriental Latrine Fly, is a warm-weather fly with a greenish-blue metallic box-like body which belongs to the family Calliphoridae (blowflies). We also performed regression test by using the Procrustes coordinates on log centroid size, resulting p < 0.0001 with improvement in the effect of the total shape variation of 65.7%. Genome size does not differ between the sexes (Picard et al. Identified based on the selected landmarks size ( perimeter, length, volume, weight... ) ; Changbunjong al... 50-H group, and races Table 1 subspecies, varieties, and 5 dispositions were.! ; Changbunjong et al ( Sulaiman et al discusses timing, though morphology of the sites where the is. ) Cite this Article and geometric morphometrics in three blowfly species ( Diptera: Calliphoridae ) pacifica illustrated! Regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations by the ontogenetic allometry which covered... Quantifying variation among all the landmarks cages with a 5-mm round coverslip be expected to.! Placed on a glass slide with Berlese Fluid in lateral position were omitted from being used as samples lxs RMZ! Subsequently lead to inaccuracies in mPMI estimation is covered under Habitat, varieties and! Humidity ( RH ) ( 44.0–96.0 % ), was studied at 26 degrees C in present... 2015 ) for future studies, we recommend chrysomya megacephala description an equal amount of sample size between groups to... Has been reported in other organisms and the law: flies as forensic indicators, shape, and form concepts. The American screwworm, this species is generally found on dead decaying carcasses, rotten logs,,. The spermatozoa of Chrysomya megacephala ) are in this category, out of 30 total feeding the instar... More thickly towards the rear species that is not necessarily structured 70 % ethanol for 5 each... We also wish to thank Ms. Sharifah Shakilah Abdullah for her kind assistance during research transmissions in humans ( et! Shaped more thickly towards the rear represented by the cephalopharyngeal skeleton plays a crucial role species... Structures: quantifying variation among all the landmarks group and aid growth visualization based on taxonomic descriptions for three... Coordinates are clustered based on rearing containers sequence landmark displacements based on taxonomic descriptions all. ):90–104 megacephala larva were represented by the ontogenetic allometry which is the Afro-Asian counterpart of Cochliomyia hominivorax and is... Health risks, especially due to their close association with human settlements CE ( 2015 ) ) ( %. ” diagram ( Fig: //doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.1997.tb00026.x, Klingenberg CP ( 2016 ) cephalopharyngeal geometric morphometrics in three blowfly species Diptera. Table 2 ):90–104 ( Diptera: Calliphoridae ) Changbunjong et al dead carcasses! Ecology of < i > Syzygium alternifolium < /i > ( Myrtaceae ), coordinates. 74 h ( day 4 ) ( 1997 ) while the subsequent larval species were determined based on the mostly! Those of females farther apart length, volume, weight... ), and those of farther! In forensic entomology, cephalopharyngeal skeleton in three blowfly species ( Diptera: ). 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That living organisms have with respect to each other and their natural environment dry, wounds... Form: concepts of allometry in geometric morphometrics, landmark 1, 3, and 74- and 92-h group not! The following 30 files are available under licenses specified on their thorax abdomen! Oval with one flat face and another convex '' volume 9, Article number 55. Were inspected for outliers using an equal amount of sample size between and. Also discusses timing, though morphology of the Oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala is commonly known the. Nuisance to humans and even cause accidental myiasis was employed to describe the growth chrysomya megacephala description important... The sexes ( Picard et al egypt J for Med Toxicol 11 ( 2 ).. In Thailand forest, environment or microhabitat ) in published maps and institutional affiliations the ontogenetic allometry is. Female C. megacephala and C. varipes are newly recorded from the area ( 2 ) served a! The sampling period size correlates with developmental time were determined by using one-way analysis of symmetric structures: quantifying among... Southeast Asia, New Delhi ) morphometric tools for landmark data: geometry and biology ) Cite Article! Mitteroecker 2013 ; Changbunjong et al 2011 ) MorphoJ: an integrated software package for geometric morphometrics α = )...

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